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What is a Computer Virus?

 

A computer virus, much like a flu virus, is designed to spread from host to host and has the ability to replicate itself. Similarly, in the same way that viruses cannot reproduce without a host cell, computer viruses cannot reproduce and spread without programming such as a file or document.
In more technical terms, a computer virus is a type of malicious code or program written to alter the way a computer operates and that is designed to spread from one computer to another. A virus operates by inserting or attaching itself to a legitimate program or document that supports macros in order to execute its code. In the process a virus has the potential to cause unexpected or damaging effects, such as harming the system software by corrupting or destroying data.
How does a computer virus attack?

Once a virus has successfully attached to a program, file, or document, the virus will lie dormant until circumstances cause the computer or device to execute its code. In order for a virus to infect your computer, you have to run the infected program, which in turn causes the virus code to be executed. This means that a virus can remain dormant on your computer, without showing major sings or symptoms. However, once the virus infects your computer, the virus can infect other computers on the same network. Stealing passwords or data, logging keystrokes, corrupting files, spamming your email contacts, and even taking over your machine are just some of the devastating and irritating things a virus can do.
While some viruses can be playful in intent and effect, others can have profound and damaging effects, such as erasing data or causing permanent damage to your hard disk, and worst yet, some are even design with financial gains in mind.
How do computer viruses spread?

In today’s constantly connected world you can contract a computer virus in many ways, some more obvious than others. Viruses can be spread through email and text message attachments, Internet file downloads, social media scam links, and even your mobile devices and smartphones can become infected with mobile viruses through shady App downloads. Viruses can hide disguised as attachments of socially shareable content such as funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files.

To avoid contact with a virus it’s important to exercise caution when surfing the web, downloading files, and opening links or attachments. As a best practice, never download text or email attachments that you’re not expecting, or files from websites you don’t trust.

computer-virus (1)
How to protect against computer viruses?
As you can see, just like a vicious flu virus, a computer virus is something that you want to avoid. The terms virus and malware are often used interchangeably; however, a virus is one of many types of malware, and only one aspect of the overall threat landscape. As a result, traditional antivirus software alone will not fully protect you from all threats.

Instead, look into comprehensive security software like Norton Security. With patented technologies that work together to outsmart online threats, scanning your system for viruses, and running continuous automatic silent updates, Norton Security keeps you protected from existing, new, and even yet-to-be-invented threats. And if a virus slips through on our watch during your subscription period, Norton support experts will do everything they can to help fix problem at no additional cost. That’s the assurance and peace of mind you only get with our Norton Virus Protection Promise. No other free or paid security software service offers this kind of guarantee.

What do computer viruses do?
Through the course of using the Internet and your computer, you may have come in to contact with computer viruses. Many computer viruses are stopped before they can start, but there is still an ever growing concern as to what do computer viruses do and the list of common computer virus symptoms. A computer virus might corrupt or delete data on your computer, use your email program to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything on your hard disk.

Computer viruses are often spread by attachments in email messages or instant messaging messages. That is why it is essential that you never open email attachments unless you know who it’s from and you are expecting it.

Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files.

Computer viruses also spread through downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in illicit software or other files or programs you might download.

To help avoid computer viruses, it’s essential that you keep your computer current with the latest updates and antivirus tools, stay informed about recent threats, run your computer as a standard user (not as administrator), and that you follow a few basic rules when you surf the Internet, download files, and open attachments.

Once a virus is on your computer, its type or the method it used to get there is not as important as removing it and preventing further infection.

Email safety tips

Here are some safety tips when using email:

  • Change your password regularly and keep it in a safe place.
  • Don’t share your password with anyone.
  • Don’t open attachments from anyone you don’t know.
  • Log out or sign off from your account when you’ve finished looking at/sending your email.
  • Don’t reply to spam or forward chain emails.
  • Keep your personal information personal – don’t share bank or credit card information by email.
  • Your bank will not discuss your private financial situation by email. If you receive any correspondence that claims to come from your bank, telephone your branch to verify it and discuss the matter over the telephone instead.
  • Make sure that you have antivirus software installed and keep it up to date.
  • Be skeptical of attachments. Even when you know the person sending you the message, if you are not expecting an attachment, don’t open it without confirming with the sender that it is legitimate.
  • Watch out for links to websites included in an email. Sometimes the link that shows in the message is different from the underlying URL coded into the email message. If you click on the link, you will go to a phony site, rather than to a legitimate one. Instead of clicking on a link within your email message, copy the URL and paste it into your web browser. That way, you will know that you are going to the real thing.
  • Never transmit financial, account, or any other information you consider private via email. Sending an email message is like sending a postcard: it is easily read by people other than those for whom it was intended. For example, someone forwarding your message to others could inadvertently expose information you intended for the original recipient alone.
  • Be suspicious when you receive an email asking you to enter personal information. This is called “phishing.” Con artists try to trick you into providing personal information through email or onto a web page by pretending to be a legitimate business or organization. Don’t click on a URL in an email (see the second item above), and don’t reply to the email. If you are unsure, contact the business or organization by phone.
  • Never reply to spam. Unscrupulous spammers will test their lists of email by sending out millions of messages–it doesn’t cost any more to send a million than it does to send one. If you reply, for example, by following the instructions for the “unsubscribe” option, you are just verifying that they have found a good address. Once they know they have a real address, you will be inundated with more spam.
  • Don’t panic if you receive an email from someone you either don’t know, or didn’t send a message to, stating that you sent them a virus. There are a number of computer viruses that grab the email addresses from the address book of a computer they infect. Such a virus then begins sending out email messages that appear to come from the email addresses stolen from the infected computer. If this occurs with a computer outside UCSB, as it often does, there’s nothing that can be done about this, because we can’t control those computers. Simply delete the message.
  • Handle attachments with care. Email attachments should be detached, then scanned with anti-virus software before they are opened.

Adobe Reader Keyboard Shortcuts

Top keyboard shortcuts in Adobe Reader (all versions).

  1. To access the menu options you can use the ALT key followed by the relevant underlined letter. To access a menu option once the menu is open, press the relevant underlined letter. Alternatively, after pressing the ALT key, use the arrow keys followed by enter to choose alternative menus and menu options.
  2. To access the toolbar buttons hit ALT followed by CTRL + TAB. Then use the arrow keys to move from one button to another. Use enter to select.
  3. To zoom in and out of a page, use CTRL + PLUS or CTRL + MINUS respectively.
  4. To fit to page for easier viewing, use CTRL + 0.
  5. To view in presentation mode use CTRL + L. Press ESC to return to normal view.
  6. To rotate view (often done by accident, here is how to fix it!)
    Clockwise: CTRL + SHIFT + PLUS
    Anti-clockwise: CTRL + SHIFT + MINUS
  7. To find a word press control + F to activate the find box, type the key word(s) and hit return. Hit return to move from one occurrence of the search item to another.

Keys for selecting tools

To enable single-key shortcuts, open the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences), and under General, select the Use Single-Key Accelerators To Access Tools option.

 

Tool Windows/UNIX action Mac OS action
Hand tool H H
Temporarily select Hand tool Spacebar Spacebar
Select tool V V
Marquee Zoom tool Z Z
Cycle through zoom tools: Marquee Zoom,Dynamic Zoom, Loupe Shift+Z Shift+Z
Temporarily select Dynamic Zoom tool (when Marquee Zoom tool is selected) Shift Shift
Temporarily zoom out (when Marquee Zoom tool is selected) Ctrl Option
Temporarily select Zoom In tool Ctrl+spacebar Spacebar+Command
Select Object tool R R
Edit Object tool O O
Enter/Exit Forms editing A A
Crop tool C C
Link tool L L
Text Field tool F F
Cycle through tools in forms authoring mode: Text Field, Check Box, Radio Button, List Box, Dropdown Box, Button, Digital Signature, Barcode Shift+F Shift+F
3D tool M M
Cycle through Multimedia tools: 3D object, SWF, Sound, Video Shift+M Shift+M
Edit Document Text tool T T
Redaction Shift+Y Shift+Y
Cycle through Touch Up tools: Touch Up Text, Touch Up Reading Order, Touch Up Object Shift+T Shift+T
JavaScript Debugger Ctrl+J Command+J
Insert Blank Pages tool Shift+Ctrl+T Shift+Command+T
Insert Files Ctrl+Shift+I  

Shift+Command+I

Delete pages Ctrl+Shift+D  

Shift+Command+D

Open Output Preview ~ ~
Touch Up Reading Order tool (or if already selected, return focus to dialog box) Shift+Ctrl+U Shift+Command+U

Keys for working with comments

To enable single-key shortcuts, open the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences), and under General, select the Use Single-Key Accelerators To Access Tools option.

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Sticky Note tool S S
Text Edits tool E E
Stamp tool K K
Current highlighting tool U U
Cycle through highlighting tools: Highlighter,Underline Text, Cross Out Text Shift+U (Windows only) Shift+U
Current drawing markup tool D D
Cycle through drawing markup tools: Cloud, Arrow, Line, Rectangle, Oval, Polygon Line, Polygon, Pencil Tool, Eraser Tool Shift+D (Windows only) Shift+D
Cloud tool Q (Windows only) Q
Text Box tool X X
Current Stamp or Attach tool J J
Cycle through Stamp, Attach File, Record Audio Comment Shift+J Shift+J
Move focus to next comment or form field Tab Tab
Move focus to previous comment or form field Shift+Tab Shift+Tab
Open pop-up note (or text field in Comments List) for comment that has focus Enter Return
Closes pop-up (or text field in Comments List) for comment that has focus Esc Esc

Keys for navigating a PDF

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Previous screen Page Up or Shift+Enter Page Up or Shift+Return
Next screen Page Down or Enter Page Down or Return
First page Home or Shift+Ctrl+Page Up or Shift+Ctrl+Up Arrow Home or Shift+Command+Up Arrow
Last page End or Shift+Ctrl+Page Down or Shift+Ctrl+Down Arrow End or Shift+Command+Down Arrow
Previous page Left Arrow or Ctrl+Page Up Left Arrow or Command+Page Up
Next page Right Arrow or Ctrl+Page Down Right Arrow or Command+Page Down
Previous open document Ctrl+F6 (UNIX) Command+F6
Next open document Shift+Ctrl+F6 (UNIX) Shift+Command+F6
Scroll up Up Arrow Up Arrow
Scroll down Down Arrow Down Arrow
Scroll (when Hand tool is selected) Spacebar Spacebar
Zoom in Ctrl+equal sign Command+equal sign
Zoom out Ctrl+hyphen Command+hyphen

Keys for working with Forms

To enable single-key shortcuts, open the Preferences dialog box (Edit > Preferences), and under General, select the Use Single-Key Accelerators To Access Tools option.

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Toggle between editing and previewing your form P P
Toggle Guides On / Off G G
Align selected fields left L L
Align selected fields right R R
Align selected fields top T T
Align selected fields bottom B B
Align selected fields horizontal H H
Align selected fields vertical V V
Center fields horizontally Shift+H Shift+H
Center fields vertically Shift+V Shift+V
Highlight fields Shift+L Shift+L
Show Tab Order Shift+N Shift+N
Document JavaScripts Shift+D Shift+D

Keys for working with PDF Portfolios

These keys are available in the files list of the Details pane.

Result Windows Action Mac OS Action
Move focus to the next or previous row when in the body of the file list on the left Up Arrow or Down Arrow Up Arrow or Down Arrow
If pressed in the body of the file list, navigate one level up from within a folder Backspace Delete
Press the Go Back button in a folder if focus is on the button. Enter or Spacebar Enter or Spacebar
If pressed when focus is on a row in the file list representing a subfolder, navigate to a subfolder, or open an attachment in Preview mode. Enter Enter
If in the body of the file list, move to the first or last row Home or End Home or End
If in the body of the file list, move to the next or last set of rows to fit the screen Page Down or Page Up Page Down or Page Up
Select or deselect all files Ctrl+A or Shift+Ctrl+A Command+A or Shift+Command+A
If in the body of the file list, extend the selection by adding the next row above or below the selected row Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow
Change whether the row with focus is in the selection Ctrl+Spacebar Command+Spacebar
Move focus up or down one row without changing the selection Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow Command+Up Arrow or Command+Down Arrow

Keys for navigating task panes

Result Windows Action Mac OS Action
Move focus to the next item among Document pane, Task panes, Message bar, and Navigation bar F6 F6
Move focus to the previous item among Document pane, Task panes, message bar, and Navigation bar Shift+F6 Shift+F6
Move focus to the next panel in the Task pane Ctrl+Tab Option +Tab
Move focus to the previous panel in the Task pane Ctrl+Shift+Tab Command+ Shift+Tab
Navigate to the next panel and panel control within an open Task pane Tab Tab
Navigate to the previous panel and panel control within an open Task pane Shift+Tab Shift+Tab
Navigate to the next command button within a panel Down Arrow Down Arrow
Navigate to the previous command button within a panel Up Arrow Up Arrow
Expand or collapse panel in focus (press F6 to move focus to Tools pane, then tab to desired panel) Spacebar or Enter Spacebar or Enter
Open or close the Task pane Shift+F4 Shift+F4
Close the pane that lists the tasks of an Action Ctrl+Shift+F4 Ctrl+Shift+F4
Open the menu and move the focus to the first menu option when focus is on a command with a submenu or submenu element with a flyout Spacebar or Enter Spacebar or Enter
Move the focus back to the parent command button with a submenu or submenu element with a flyout Esc Esc
Run the command in focus Spacebar or Enter Spacebar or Enter
Navigate to the next item in the active panel in the Create New Action, Edit Action, Create Custom Tool, or the Edit Custom Tool dialog boxes Tab Tab
Navigate to the previous item in the active panel in the Create New Action, Edit Action, Create Custom Tool, or the Edit Custom Tool dialog boxes Shift+Tab Shift+Tab

Keys for general navigating

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Move focus to menus (Windows, UNIX); expand first menu item (UNIX) F10 Control+F2
Move focus to toolbar in browser and application

(In application, sets focus to the first button in the top bar – Home)

Shift+F8 Shift+F8
Navigate through the other controls in the top bar – Home, Tools, Document Right/Left Arrow or Tab/Shift Tab Right/Left Arrow or Tab/Shift Tab
Select a highlighted control in the top bar Enter or Spacebar Return or Spacebar
Move to next open document tab (when multiple documents are open in same window) Ctrl+Tab Control+Tab
Move to previous open document tab (when multiple documents are open in same window) Ctrl+Shift+Tab Control+Shift+Tab
Move to next open document window (when focus is on document pane) Ctrl+F6 Command+F6
Move to previous open document window (when focus is on document pane) Ctrl+Shift+F6 Command+Shift+F6
Close current document Ctrl+F4 Command+F4
Close all open documents Not available Command+Option+W
Move focus to next comment, link, or form field in the document pane Tab Tab
Move focus to document pane F5 F5
Move focus to previous comment, link, or form field in the document pane Shift+Tab Shift+Tab
Activate selected tool, item (such as a movie clip or bookmark), or command Spacebar or Enter Spacebar or Return
Open context menu Shift+F10 Control+click
Close context menu F10 Esc
Return to Hand tool or Select tool Esc Esc
Move focus to next tab in a tabbed dialog box Ctrl+Tab Not available
Move to previous search result and highlight it in the document Shift + F3 or

Ctrl + Shift + G

Shift + Command + G
Move to next search result and highlight it in the document F3 or

Ctrl + G

Command + G
Search previous document (with Search results displaying multiple files) Alt+Shift+Left Arrow (Windows only) Command+Shift+Left Arrow
Search next document (with Search results displaying multiple files) Alt+Shift+Right Arrow (Windows only) Command+Shift+Right Arrow
Select text (with Select tool selected) Shift+arrow keys Shift+arrow keys
Select next word or deselect previous word (with Select tool selected) Shift+Ctrl+Right Arrow or Left Arrow Not available

Keys for working with navigation panels

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Open and move focus to navigation pane Ctrl+Shift+F5 Command+Shift+F5
Move focus among the document, message bar, and navigation panels F6 F6
Move focus to previous pane or panel Shift+F6 Shift+F6
Move among the elements of the active navigation panel Tab Tab
Move to previous or next navigation panel and make it active (when focus is on the panel button) Up Arrow or Down Arrow Up Arrow or Down Arrow
Move to next navigation panel and make it active (when focus is anywhere in the navigation pane) Ctrl+Tab Not available
Expand the current bookmark (focus on Bookmarks panel) Right Arrow or Shift+plus sign Right Arrow or Shift+plus sign
Collapse the current bookmark (focus on Bookmarks panel) Left Arrow or minus sign Left Arrow or minus sign
Expand all bookmarks Shift+* Shift+*
Collapse selected bookmark Forward Slash (/) Forward Slash (/)
Move focus to next item in a navigation panel Down Arrow Down Arrow
Move focus to previous item in a navigation panel Up Arrow Up Arrow

Keys for navigating the Help window

Result Windows/UNIX Action Mac OS Action
Open Help window F1 F1 or Command+?
Close Help window Ctrl+W (Windows only) or Alt+F4 Command+W
Move back to previously opened topic Alt+Left Arrow Command+Left Arrow
Move forward to next topic Alt+Right Arrow Command+Right Arrow
Move to next pane Ctrl+Tab See Help for your default browser
Move to previous pane Shift+Ctrl+Tab See Help for your default browser
Move focus to the next link within a pane Tab Not available
Move focus to the previous link within a pane Shift+Tab Not available
Activate highlighted link Enter Not available
Print Help topic Ctrl+P Command+P

Keys for accessibility

Result Windows Action Mac OS Action
Change reading settings for the current document Shift+Ctrl+5 Shift+Command+5
Reflow a tagged PDF, and return to unreflowed view Ctrl+4 Command+4
Activate and deactivate Read Out Loud Shift+Ctrl+Y Shift+Command+Y
Read only the current page out loud Shift+Ctrl+V Shift+Command+V
Read out loud from the current page to the end of the document Shift+Ctrl+B Shift+Command+B
Pause reading out loud Shift+Ctrl+C Shift+Command+C
Stop reading out loud Shift+Ctrl+E Shift+Command+E

Keyboard shortcuts for Microsoft Outlook 2013 and 2016

This reference article provides a comprehensive list of all keyboard shortcuts for Microsoft Outlook 2013 and 2016 (desktop version). Shortcuts are grouped by functionality; for example, you’ll find shortcuts for moving around in Outlook under “Navigation”. As you might guess, you’ll find some shortcuts listed more than once.

 

Note:

  • Keys that should be pressed at the same time are joined with a plus sign (+). Keys that you should press in sequence are joined by a comma (,). Thus, the keyboard shortcut Alt+H, M+R means press Alt and H together to open the Home tab on the ribbon, and then press letters M and R together to open a new Meeting Request.

Frequently used shortcuts

The following shortcuts are the most frequently used in Outlook 2013 and 2016.

To do this Press
Close Alt+F, then X
Go to Home tab Alt+H
New mail message Ctrl+N
Send Alt+S
Insert file in a message Alt+H, then AF
Zoom Ctrl+Plus(+), Ctrl+Minus(-)
Delete selected item Ctrl+D
Go to Search box F3 or Ctrl+E
Reply Ctrl+R
Forward Ctrl+F
Reply All Ctrl+Shift+R
Start Send/Receive for folders and groups F9
Go to Calendar Ctrl+2
Create appointment Alt+H, then N1
Move to folder Alt+H, then MV. Use Down Arrow to select folder.
Attachment Save As From the message that contains the attachment, press Alt+JA, then AA.

 

Work in Outlook

Move around in Inbox and between Outlook views

To do this Press
Go to the Search box. F3 or Ctrl+E
In the Reading Pane, go to the previous message. Alt+Up Arrow, or

Ctrl+Comma, or

Alt+Page Up

In the Reading Pane, page down through text. Spacebar
In the Reading Pane, page up through text. Shift+Spacebar
Move between regions in Outlook, such as the Folder Pane, the main Outlook window, the Reading Pane, and the To-Do Bar. Ctrl+Shift+Tab, or

Shift+Tab

Move between regions in Outlook, such as the Outlook window, the smaller panes in the Folder Pane, the Reading Pane, and the sections in the To-Do Bar. Tab
Move between regions in Outlook, such as the Outlook window, the smaller panes in the Folder Pane, the Reading Pane, and the sections in the To-Do Bar, and show the access keys in the Outlook ribbon. F6
Move around message header lines in the Folder Pane or an open message. Ctrl+Tab
Move around within the Folder Pane. Arrow keys
Go to a different folder. Ctrl+Y
Collapse or expand a group in the email message list. Left Arrow or Right Arrow, respectively

Switch to a different Outlook view (Mail, Calendar, Contacts, and so on)

To do this Press
Switch to Mail. Ctrl+1
Switch to Calendar. Ctrl+2
Switch to Contacts. Ctrl+3
Switch to Tasks. Ctrl+4
Switch to Notes. Ctrl+5
Switch to Folder List in Folder Pane. Ctrl+6
Switch to Shortcuts. Ctrl+7
Switch to next message (with message open). Ctrl+Period
Switch to previous message (with message open). Ctrl+Comma
Go back to previous view in main Outlook window. Alt+B or Alt+Left Arrow
Go forward to next view in main Outlook window. Alt+Right Arrow
Select the InfoBar and, if available, show the menu of commands. Ctrl+Shift+W

Search in any Outlook view (Mail, Calendar, etc)

To do this Press
Go to Search box. F3 or Ctrl+E
Clear the search results. Esc
Expand the search to include All Mail Items, All Calendar Items, or All Contact Items, depending on the module you are in. Ctrl+Alt+A
Use Advanced Find. Ctrl+Shift+F
Create a Search Folder. Ctrl+Shift+P
Search for text within an open item. F4
Find and replace text and symbols in the Reading Pane. Ctrl+H
Expand search to include items from the current folder. Ctrl+Alt+K
Expand search to include subfolders. Ctrl+Alt+Z

Format text

To do this Press
Cut. Ctrl+X or Shift+Delete
Copy. Ctrl+C or Ctrl+Insert
Paste. Ctrl+V or Shift+Insert
Undo. Ctrl+Z or Alt+Backspace
Bold. Ctrl+B
Italic. Ctrl+I
Underline Ctrl+U
Add bullets. Ctrl+Shift+L
Display the Format menu. Alt+O
Display the Font dialog box. Ctrl+Shift+P
Switch case (with text selected). Shift+F3
Format letters as small capitals. Ctrl+Shift+K
Increase indent. Ctrl+T
Decrease indent. Ctrl+Shift+T
Left align text. Ctrl+L
Center text. Ctrl+E
Right align text. Ctrl+R
Stretch a paragraph to fit between the margins. Ctrl+Shift+J
Increase font size. Ctrl+] or Ctrl+Shift+>
Decrease font size. Ctrl+[ or Ctrl+Shift+<
Clear formatting. Ctrl+Shift+Z or Ctrl+Spacebar
Delete the next word. Ctrl+Shift+H
Apply paragraph or heading styles. Ctrl+Shift+S
Create a hanging indent. Ctrl+T
Insert a hyperlink. Ctrl+K
Reduce a hanging indent. Ctrl+Shift+T
Remove paragraph formatting. Ctrl+Q

Print

To do this Press
Open Print tab in Backstage view. Press Alt+F, and then press P
To print an item from an open window. Alt+F, press P, and then press F and press 1
Open Page Setup from Print Preview. Alt+S or Alt+U
To select a printer from Print Preview. Alt+F, press P, and then press I
To Define Print Styles. Alt+F, press P, and then press L
To open Print Options. Alt+F, press P, and then press R

Add or edit links

To do this Press
Edit a URL in the body of an item. Hold down Ctrl and click the mouse button.
Insert a hyperlink. Ctrl+K

Create an item or file

To do this Press
Create an appointment. Ctrl+Shift+A
Create a contact. Ctrl+Shift+C
Create a contact group. Ctrl+Shift+L
Create a fax. Ctrl+Shift+X
Create a folder. Ctrl+Shift+E
Create a meeting request. Ctrl+Shift+Q
Create a message. Ctrl+Shift+M
Create a note. Ctrl+Shift+N
Create a Microsoft Office document. Ctrl+Shift+H
Post to this folder. Ctrl+Shift+S
Post a reply in this folder. Ctrl+T
Create a Search Folder. Ctrl+Shift+P
Create a task. Ctrl+Shift+K
Create a task request. Ctrl+Shift+U

Mail

Frequently used mail shortcuts

To do this Press
Switch to Mail. Ctrl+1
Send. Alt+S or Ctrl+Enter
Reply to a message. Ctrl+R
Reply all to a message. Ctrl+Shift+R
Forward a message. Ctrl+F
Create a message (when in Mail). Ctrl+N
Create a message (from any Outlook view). Ctrl+Shift+M
Open a received message. Ctrl+O
Mark as read. Ctrl+Q
Mark as unread. Ctrl+U
Go to the previous message. Up Arrow
Go to the next message. Down Arrow

Other mail shortcuts

To do this Press
Add a Quick Flag to an unopened message. Insert
Apply Normal style. Ctrl+Shift+N
Check for new messages. Ctrl+M or F9
Check names. Ctrl+K
Choose the account from which to send a message. Ctrl+Tab (with focus on the To box), and then Tab to the Accounts button
Clear Mark for Download. Ctrl+Alt+U
Create a multimedia message Ctrl+Shift+U
Delete and Ignore a Conversation. Ctrl+Shift+D
Display blocked external content (in a message). Ctrl+Shift+I
Display Send/Receive progress. Ctrl+B (when a Send/Receive is in progress)
Display the Flag for Follow Up dialog box. Ctrl+Shift+G
Find next. Shift+F4
Find or replace. F4
Forward as attachment. Ctrl+Alt+F
Mark a message as not junk. Ctrl+ Alt+J
Mark for Download. Ctrl+Alt+M
Open the Address Book. Ctrl+Shift+B
Open the Mail Tip in the selected message. Ctrl+Shift+W
Post to a folder. Ctrl+ Shift+S
Print. Ctrl+P
Reply with meeting request. Ctrl+Alt+R
Show the properties for the selected item. Alt+Enter

Calendar

Frequently used calendar shortcuts

To do this Press
Switch to Calendar Ctrl+2
Create an appointment (when in Calendar). Ctrl+N
Create an appointment (in any Outlook view). Ctrl+Shift+A
Create a meeting request. Ctrl+Shift+Q
Forward an appointment or meeting. Ctrl+F
Reply to a meeting request with a message. Ctrl+R
Reply All to a meeting request with a message. Ctrl+Shift+R
Go to a date. Ctrl+G

Other calendar shortcuts

To do this Press
Show 1 day in the calendar. Alt+1
Show 2 days in the calendar. Alt+2
Show 3 days in the calendar. Alt+3
Show 4 days in the calendar. Alt+4
Show 5 days in the calendar. Alt+5
Show 6 days in the calendar. Alt+6
Show 7 days in the calendar. Alt+7
Show 8 days in the calendar. Alt+8
Show 9 days in the calendar. Alt+9
Show 10 days in the calendar. Alt+0
Switch to Month view. Alt+= or Ctrl+Alt+4
Switch to Full Week view. Alt+Minus Sign or Ctrl+Alt+3
Switch to Work Week view. Ctrl+Alt+2
Go to the next day. Ctrl+Right Arrow
Go to the next week. Alt+Down Arrow
Go to the next month. Alt+Page Down
Go to the previous day. Ctrl+Left Arrow
Go to the previous week. Alt+Up Arrow
Go to the previous month. Alt+Page Up
Go to the start of the week. Alt+Home
Go to the end of the week. Alt+End
Go to previous appointment. Ctrl+Comma or Ctrl+Shift+Comma
Go to next appointment. Ctrl+Period or Ctrl+Shift+Period
Set up recurrence for an open appointment or meeting. Ctrl+G

See also under Views: Calendar Day/Week/Month view, and Date Navigator.

Contacts

To do this Press
Find a contact. F11
Dial a new call. Ctrl+Shift+D
Find a contact or other item (Search). F3 or Ctrl+E
Enter a name in the Search Address Books box. F11
In Table or List view of contacts, go to first contact that starts with a specific letter. Shift+letter
Select all contacts. Ctrl+A
Create a message with selected contact as subject. Ctrl+F
Create a contact (when in Contacts). Ctrl+N
Create a contact (from any Outlook view). Ctrl+Shift+C
Open a contact form for the selected contact. Ctrl+O
Create a contact group. Ctrl+Shift+L
Print. Ctrl+P
Update a list of contact group members. F5
Go to a different folder. Ctrl+Y
Open the Address Book. Ctrl+Shift+B
Use Advanced Find. Ctrl+Shift+F
In an open contact, open the next contact listed. Ctrl+Shift+Period
Close a contact. ESC
Send a fax to the selected contact. Ctrl+Shift+X
Open the Check Address dialog box. Alt+D
In a contact form, under Internet, display the Email 1 information. Alt+Shift+1
In a contact form, under Internet, display the Email 2 information. Alt+Shift+2
In a contact form, under Internet, display the Email 3 information. Alt+Shift+3

Electronic Business Cards

Frequently used shortcuts for Electronic Business Cards

To do this Press
Open the Add list. Alt+A
Select text in Label box when the field with a label assigned is selected. Alt+B
Open the Add Card Picture dialog box. Alt+C
Place cursor at beginning of Edit box. Alt+E
Select the Fields box. Alt+F
Select the Image Align drop-down list. Alt+G
Select color palette for background. Alt+K, then Enter
Select Layout drop-down list. Alt+L
Remove a selected field from the Fields box. Alt+R

Select items in Business Cards view

To do this Press
Select a specific card in the list. One or more letters of the name that the card is filed under or the name of the field that you are sorting by
Select the previous card. Up Arrow
Select the next card. Down Arrow
Select the first card in the list. Home
Select the last card in the list. End
Select the first card on the current page. Page Up
Select the first card on the next page. Page Down
Select the closest card in the next column. Right Arrow
Select the closest card in the previous column. Left Arrow
Select or cancel selection of the active card. Ctrl+Spacebar
Extend the selection to the previous card and cancel selection of cards after the starting point. Shift+Up Arrow
Extend the selection to the next card and cancel selection of cards before the starting point. Shift+Down Arrow
Extend the selection to the previous card, regardless of the starting point. Ctrl+Shift+Up Arrow
Extend the selection to the next card, regardless of the starting point. Ctrl+Shift+Down Arrow
Extend the selection to the first card in the list. Shift+Home
Extend the selection to the last card in the list. Shift+End
Extend the selection to the first card on the previous page. Shift+Page Up
Extend the selection to the last card on the last page. Shift+Page Down

Move between fields in an open card

To use the following keys, make sure a field in a card is selected. To select a field when a card is selected, click the field.

To do this Press
Move to the next field and control. Tab
Move to the previous field and control. Shift+Tab
Close the active card. Enter

Move between characters in a field

To use the following keys, make sure a field in a card is selected. To select a field when a card is selected, click the field.

To do this Press
Add a line in a multiline field. Enter
Move to the beginning of a line. Home
Move to the end of a line. End
Move to the beginning of a multiline field. Page Up
Move to the end of a multiline field. Page Down
Move to the previous line in a multiline field. Up Arrow
Move to the next line in a multiline field. Down Arrow
Move to the previous character in a field. Left Arrow
Move to the next character in a field. Right Arrow

Tasks

Frequently used shortcuts for Tasks

To do this Press
Accept a task request. Alt+C
Decline a task request. Alt+D
Find a task or other item. Ctrl+E
Open the Go to Folder dialog box. Ctrl+Y
Create a task (when in Tasks). Ctrl+N
Create a task (from any Outlook view). Ctrl+Shift+K
Open selected item. Ctrl+O
Print selected item. Ctrl+P
Select all items. Ctrl+A
Delete selected item. Ctrl+D
Forward a task as an attachment. Ctrl+F
Create a task request. Ctrl+Shift+Alt+U
Switch between the Folder Pane, Tasks list, and To-Do Bar. Tab or Shift+Tab
Undo last action. Ctrl+Z
Flag an item or mark complete. Insert

Work with Task items in Timeline view

When an item is selected

To do this Press
Select the previous item. Left Arrow
Select the next item. Right Arrow
Select several adjacent items. Shift+Left Arrow or Shift+Right Arrow
Select several nonadjacent items. Ctrl+Left Arrow+Spacebar or Ctrl+Right Arrow+Spacebar
Open the selected items. Enter
Select the first item on the timeline (if items are not grouped) or the first item in the group. Home
Select the last item on the timeline (if items are not grouped) or the last item in the group. End
Display (without selecting) the first item on the timeline (if items are not grouped) or the first item in the group. Ctrl+Home
Display (without selecting) the last item on the timeline (if items are not grouped) or the last item in the group. Ctrl+End

When a group is selected

To do this Press
Expand the group. Enter or Right Arrow
Collapse the group. Enter or Left Arrow
Select the previous group. Up Arrow
Select the next group. Down Arrow
Select the first group on the timeline. Home
Select the last group on the timeline. End
Select the first item on screen in an expanded group or the first item off screen to the right. Right Arrow

When a unit of time on the time scale for days is selected

To do this Press
Move back in increments of time that are the same as those shown on the time scale. Left Arrow
Move forward in increments of time that are the same as those shown on the time scale. Right Arrow
Switch between active view, To-Do Bar, Search and back to active view. Tab and Shift+Tab

Groups

Work with groups

To do this Press
Expand a single selected group. Right Arrow
Collapse a single selected group. Left Arrow
Select the previous group. Up Arrow
Select the next group. Down Arrow
Select the first group. Home
Select the last group. End
Select the first item on screen in an expanded group or the first item off screen to the right. Right Arrow

Send/Receive folders and groups

To do this Press
Start a send/receive for all defined Send/Receive groups with Include this group in Send/Receive (F9) selected. This can include headers, full items, specified folders, items less than a specific size, or any combination that you define. F9
Start a send/receive for the current folder, retrieving full items (header, item, and any attachments). Shift+F9
Start a send/receive. Ctrl+M
Define Send/Receive groups. Ctrl+Alt+S

Views in Outlook

Table view

To do this Press
Open an item. Enter
Select all items. Ctrl+A
Go to the item at the bottom of the screen. Page Down
Go to the item at the top of the screen. Page Up
Extend or reduce the selected items by one item. Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow, respectively
Go to the next or previous item without extending the selection. Ctrl+Up Arrow or Ctrl+Down Arrow, respectively
Select or cancel selection of the active item. Ctrl+Spacebar

Calendar views

To do this Press
View from 1 through 9 days. Alt+key for number of days
View 10 days. Alt+0 (zero)
Switch to weeks. Alt+Minus Sign
Switch to months. Alt+=
Move between Calendar, TaskPad, and the Folder List. Ctrl+Tab or F6
Select the previous appointment. Shift+Tab
Go to the previous day. Left Arrow
Go to the next day. Right Arrow
Go to the same day in the next week. Alt+Down Arrow
Go to the same day in the previous week. Alt+Up Arrow

Day view

To do this Press
Select the time that begins your work day. HOME
Select the time that ends your work day. END
Select the previous block of time. Up Arrow
Select the next block of time. Down Arrow
Select the block of time at the top of the screen. Page Up
Select the block of time at the bottom of the screen. Page Down
Extend or reduce the selected time. Shift+Up Arrow or Shift+Down Arrow, respectively
Move an appointment up or down. With the cursor in the appointment, Alt+Up Arrow or Alt+Down Arrow, respectively
Change an appointment’s start or end time. With the cursor in the appointment, Alt+Shift+Up Arrow or Alt+Shift+Down Arrow, respectively
Move selected item to the same day in the next week. Alt+Down Arrow
Move selected item to the same day in the previous week. Alt+Up Arrow

Week view

To do this Press
Go to the start of work hours for the selected day. Home
Go to the end of work hours for the selected day. End
Go up one page view in the selected day. Page Up
Go down one page view in the selected day. Page Down
Change the duration of the selected block of time. Shift+Left Arrow, Shift+Right Arrow, Shift+Up Arrow, or Shift+Down Arrow; or Shift+Home or Shift+End

Month view

To do this Press
Go to the first day of the week. Home
Go to the same day of the week in the previous page. Page Up
Go to the same day of the week in the next page. Page Down

Date Navigator

To do this Press
Go to the first day of the current week. Alt+Home
Go to the last day of the current week. Alt+End
Go to the same day in the previous week. Alt+Up Arrow
Go to the same day in the next week. Alt+Down Arrow

 

How to Recall an Email in Outlook After Sending

We’ve probably all been there. Hitting send on an email that, moments later, we then regret. Whether it went to the wrong person, sent in a moment of rage, or just containing an embarrassing typo, wouldn’t it be great if emails could be recalled? Well, under the right circumstances, they can be.

Providing you’re using Outlook with an Exchange account, you might be able to retract your email. But you need to be quick and you need to hope some factors are on your side. We’ll explore how to recall an email, the requirements that need to be met, along with some alternative approaches.

Please head into the comments section afterwards to share your own stories of email recall and any tips you can share on the topic.

How to Recall a Message in Outlook

It’s very easy to try and recall a message in Outlook. First, navigate to your Sent Items folder and then open the message that you want to recall. From the ribbon, ensure that the Message tab is selected. Then, in the Move group, click Actions (which may have collapsed into an icon, depending on your window size). From the dropdown that appears, select Recall This Message….

recall-this-message

A new window will open, which will let you select how you want to handle the recall. You can Delete unread copies of this message to remove the email from the recipient’s inbox entirely. Alternatively, you can Delete unread copies and replace with a new message if you want to send a different email in place of the original.

recall-this-message-2

You can also choose to tick Tell me if recall succeeds or fails for each recipient. This will send you an email that’ll let you know the result of every recall attempt. Once you receive these, you’ll then see a Tracking icon in the ribbon which can be clicked to give a summary of the results.

When complete, click OK to recall the message. This will then send a request to the recipient’s address, asking the email client to delete the original email.

How To Compare Two Word Documents

Comparing documents for differences is a tedious process, but you can check for difference between 2 word document easily.

Follow this tutorial to see how it can be done.

Step 1. Have 2 Word Documents (.doc, .docx).

Step2. Goto Review –> Compare ( Select “Compare”, Compare 2 versions of document. )

compare-docs

provide the path to both the documents and press “OK”.

You will show the difference between the documents alongside with the original documents in small panes.The differences will be shown as striked of lines, in the middle pane, making it easy for viewing the difference.

See below Image for example.

word-docs-comparison

Microsoft Windows shortcut keys

Below is a listing of all the more commonly used Windows shortcut keys for every version of Microsoft Windows.

Alt + Tab
Switch between open applications in all versions of Windows. Reverse the direction by pressing Alt + Shift + Tab at the same time.
Ctrl + Tab
Switches between program groups, tabs, or document windows in applications that support this feature. Reverse the direction by pressing Ctrl + Shift + Tab at the same time.
Alt + double-click
Display the properties of the object you double-click on in Windows 95 and later. For example, doing this on a file would display its properties.
Alt + Print Screen
Create a screenshot only for the active program window in all versions of Windows. For example, if you opened the calculator and pressed these shortcut keys, only the calculator window would be created as a screenshot. If just the Print Screen key is pressed the whole screen will be made into a screenshot.
Ctrl + Alt + Del
Open the Windows option screen for locking computer, switching user, Task Manager, etc. in later versions of Windows. Pressing Ctrl+Alt+Del multiple times will reboot the computer.
Ctrl + Shift + Esc
Immediately bring up the Windows Task Manager in Windows 2000 and later.
Ctrl + Esc
Open the Windows Start menu in most versions of Windows. In Windows 8 this opens the Start screen and in Windows 3.x this would bring up the Task Manager.
Alt + Esc
Switch between open applications on Taskbar in Windows 95 and later.
Alt + Spacebar
Drops down the window control menu for the currently open Windows program in Windows 95 and later.
Alt + Enter
Opens properties window of selected icon or program in Windows 95 and later.
Shift + Del
Will delete any file or other object without throwing it into the Recycle Bin in Windows 95 and later.
Hold down the Shift key
When putting in an audio or data CD that uses Autoplay, holding down the Shift key will prevent that CD from playing.
Windows function key shortcuts

Below is a listing of keyboard shortcuts that use the keyboard function keys. See our what are F1 through F12 keys page for a full listing of what function keys do with all other programs.
F1
Activates help for current open application. If you’re at the Windows Desktop, this will activate the help for Windows.
F2
Renames a highlighted icon, file, or folder in all versions of Windows.
F3
Starts find or search when at the Windows Desktop in all versions of Windows.
F4
In Windows 95 and later, this opens the drive selection or address bar when browsing files in Windows Explorer.
Pressing Alt + F4 closes the current open program window without a prompt in all versions of Windows.
Pressing Ctrl + F4 closes the open window within the current active window in Microsoft Windows. This only works in programs that support multiple windows or tabs in the same program window.
F6
While in Windows Explorer, this will move the cursor to different Windows Explorer pane or in Windows 7 browse available drives.
F8
Pressing F8 over and over as the computer is booting will start the computer in Safe Mode.
F10
Activates the File menu bar in all versions of Windows.
Simulates a right-click on selected item. This is useful if right-click is difficult or impossible using the mouse.
Windows keyboard key shortcuts

Below is a listing of Windows keys that can be used on computers running a Microsoft Windows 95 or later and using a keyboard with a Windows key. In the below list of shortcuts, the Windows key is represented by “WINKEY.” Because not all these shortcuts will work in every version of Windows, we’ve mentioned which versions of Windows support each shortcut key combination.
All versions of Windows
Windows XP only
Windows 7 and 8 only
Windows 8 only
All versions of Windows
WINKEY
Pressing the Windows key alone opens or hides the Windows Start menu. In Windows 8, this opens or hides the Start screen.
WINKEY + F1
Open the Microsoft Windows help and support center.
WINKEY + Pause / Break key
Open the System Properties window.
WINKEY + D
Opens the Desktop to the top of all other windows.
WINKEY + E
Open Microsoft Windows Explorer.
WINKEY + F
Display the Windows Search or Find feature.
WINKEY + Ctrl + F
Display the search for computers window.
WINKEY + L
Lock the computer and switch users if needed (Windows XP and above only).
WINKEY + M
Minimizes all windows.
WINKEY + Shift + M
Undo the minimize done by WINKEY + M and WINKEY + D.
WINKEY + R
Open the run window.
WINKEY + U
Open Utility Manager or the Ease of Access Center.
Windows XP only
WINKEY + Tab
Cycle through open programs through the Taskbar.
Windows 7 and 8 only
WINKEY + 1-0
Pressing the Windows key and any of the top row number keys from 1 to 0 opens the program corresponding to the number of icon on the Taskbar. For example, if the first icon on the Taskbar was Internet Explorer, pressing WINKEY + 1 would open that program or switch to it if already open.
WINKEY + (Plus (+) or Minus (-))
Open Windows Magnifier and zoom in with the plus symbol (+) and zoom out with the minus symbol (-).
Press the WINKEY + ESC to close the Magnifier
WINKEY + Home
Minimize all windows except the active window.
WINKEY + P
Change between the monitor and projection display types or how second screen displays computer screen.
WINKEY + T
Set the focus on the Taskbar icons
WINKEY + Left arrow
Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the left side for side by side viewing.
WINKEY + Right arrow
Shrinks the window to 1/2 screen on the right side for side by side viewing.
WINKEY + Up arrow
When in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to full size.
WINKEY + Down arrow
Minimizes the screen. Also, when in the side by side viewing mode, this shortcut takes the screen back to a minimized size.
Windows 8 only
WINKEY + ,
Peek at the Windows Desktop.
WINKEY + .
Snap a Windows App to the sides of the screen. Pressing it multiple times will switch between the right and left-hand side of the screen or unsnap the app.
WINKEY + Enter
Open Windows Narrator
WINKEY + C
Open the Charms.
WINKEY + G
Cycle through Desktop gadgets.
WINKEY + H
Open Share in Charms.
WINKEY + I
Open the Settings in Charms.
WINKEY + J
Switch between snapped apps.
WINKEY + K
Open Devices in Charms.
WINKEY + O
Lock the screen orientation.
WINKEY + X
Open the power user menu, which gives you access to many of the features most power users would want to use such as Device Manager, Control Panel, Event Viewer, Command Prompt, and much more.

Information on Excel formulas

Formulas are what helped make spreadsheets so popular. By creating formulas, you can have quick calculations even if the information changes in the cells relating to the formula. For example, you could have a total cell that adds all values in a column.
The basics

All spreadsheet formulas begin with and equal sign (=) symbol.
After the equal symbol either a cell or formula function is entered. The function tells the spreadsheet the type of formula.
If a math function is being performed the math formula is surrounded in parentheses.
Using the colon (:) allows you to get a range of cells for a formula. For example, A1:A10 is cells A1 through A10.
Entering a spreadsheet formula

Below is an animated visual example of how an excel formula can be inserted into a spreadsheet. In our first formula entered into the cell “D1,” we manually enter a =sum formula to add 1+2 (in cells A1 and B2) to get the total of “3.” With the next example, we use the mouse to highlight cells A2 to D2 and then instead of typing the formula use the formula button in Excel to automatically create the formula. Next, we show how you can manually enter a formula and then with the help of a mouse get the cell values (you can also highlight multiple cells to create a range). Finally, we manually enter a times ( * ) formula using sum function to find the value of 5 * 100.

excel

Formula examples

Note: The functions listed below may not be the same in all languages of Microsoft Excel. All these examples are done in the English version of Microsoft Excel.
Tip: All of the examples below are listed in alphabetical order, if you want to start with the most common formula, we suggest starting with the =SUM formula.
=
AVERAGE
COUNT
COUNTA
COUNTIF
IF
INDIRECT
MEDIAN
MIN AND MAX
PRODUCT
RAND
RANDBETWEEN
SUM
SUMIF
TODAY
TREND
VLOOKUP
=

=

= will create a cell equal to another. For example, if you were to put =A1 in B1 what ever was in A1 would automatically be put in B1. You could also create a formula that would make one cell equal to more than one value. For example, if you have a first name in cell A1 and a last name in cell B1, you could put in cell A2 =A1&” “&B1 which would put cell A1 in with B1 with a space between. You can also use a concatenate formula to combine cell values.
AVERAGE

=AVERAGE(X:X)

Display the average amount between cells. For example, if you wanted to get the average for cells A1 to A30, you would type: =AVERAGE(A1:A30).

COUNT

=COUNT(X:X)

Count the number of cells in a range that contain only numbers. For example, you could find how many cells between A1 and A15 contain a numeric value by using the =COUNT(A1:A15). If cell A1 and A5 only contained numbers the value of the cell that contains this function would be equal to “2.”

COUNTA

=COUNTA(X:X)

Count the number of cells in a range that contain text and are not empty. For example, you could count the number of cells containing text in cells A1 through A20 by using the =COUNTA(A1:A20). If seven cells were empty the number “13” would be returned.

COUNTIF

=COUNTIF(X:X,”*”)

Count the cells that have a certain value. For example, if you have =COUNTIF(A1:A10,”TEST”) in cell A11, then any cell between A1 through A10 that has the word test will be counted as 1. So if you have 5 cells in that range that contain the word test, A11 would say 5.

IF

=IF(*)

The syntax of the IF statement are =IF(CELL=”VALUE” ,”PRINT OR DO THIS”,”ELSE PRINT OR DO THIS”). So a good example of the syntax would be =IF(A1=””,”BLANK”,”NOT BLANK”), this would make any cell besides cell A1 say “BLANK” if a1 had nothing within it, and “NOT BLANK” if any information was within it. The if statement can, of course, become a lot more complicated but can be reduced if following the above structure.

INDIRECT

=INDIRECT(“A”&”2”)

Returns a reference specified by a text string. In the above example, the formula would return the value of the cell contained in A2.
=INDIRECT(“A”&RANDBETWEEN(1,10))

Returns the value of a random cell between A1 and A2 using the indirect and randbetween (explained below) functions.

MEDIAN

=MEDIAN(A1:A7)

MIN AND MAX

Find the median of the values of cells A1 through A7. For example, four is the median for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7.
=MIN/MAX(X:X)

Min and Max represent the minimum or maximum amount in the cells. For example, if you wanted to get the minimum value between cells A1 and A30 you would put =MIN(A1:A30) or if you wanted to get the Maximum about =MAX(A1:A30).

PRODUCT

=PRODUCT(X:X)

Multiples multiple cells together. For example =Product(A1:A30) would multiple all cells together, so A1 * A2 * A3, etc.

RAND

=RAND()

Generates a random number greater than zero but less than one, For example, “0.681359187” could be a randomly generated number placed into the cell of the formula.

RANDBETWEEN

=RANDBETWEEN(1,100)

Generate a random number between two values. In the above example, the formula would create a random whole number between 1 and 100.

SUM

=SUM(X:X)

The most commonly used function to add, subtract, multiple, or divide values in cells. Below are some examples.
=SUM(A1+A2)

Add the cells A1 and A2.
=SUM(A1:A5)

Add cells A1 through A5.
=SUM(A1,A2,A5)

Adds cells A1, A2, and A5.
=SUM(A2-A1)

Subtract cell A1 from A2.
=SUM(A1*A2)

Multiply cells A1 and A2.
=SUM(A1/A2)

Divide cell A1 by A2.
SUMIF

=SUMIF(X:X,”*”X:X)

Perform the SUM function only if there is a specified value in the first selected cells. An example of this would be =SUMIF(A1:A6,”TEST”,B1:B6) which only adds the values B1:B6 if the word “test” was put somewhere in between A1:A6. So if you put TEST (not case sensitive) in A1, but had numbers in B1 through B6, it would only add the value in B1 because TEST is in A1.
See our SUMIF definition for additional information.

TODAY

=TODAY()

Would print out the current date in the cell entered. This value will change to reflect the current date each time you open your spreadsheet. If you want to enter a date that doesn’t change hold down CTRL and ; to enter the date.

TREND

=TREND(X:X)

To find the common value of cell. For example, if cells A1 through A6 had 2,4,6,8,10,12 and you entered formula =TREND(A1:A6) in a different cell, you would get the value of 2 because each number is going up by 2.

VLOOKUP

=VLOOKUP(X,X:X,X,X)

The lookup, hlookup, or vlookup formula allows you to search and find related values for returned results. See our lookup definition for a complete definition and full details on this formula.

Microsoft Excel shortcut keys

Shortcut Description
F2 Edit the selected cell.
F3 After a name has been created, F3 will paste names.
F4 Repeat last action. For example, if you changed the color of text in another cell, pressing F4 will change the text in cell to the same color.
F5 Go to a specific cell. For example, C6.
F7 Spell check selected text or document.
F11 Create chart from selected data.
Ctrl + Shift + ; Enter the current time.
Ctrl + ; Enter the current date.
Alt + Shift + F1 Insert New Worksheet.
Alt + Enter While typing text in a cell, pressing Alt + Enter will move to the next line, allowing for multiple lines of text in one cell.
Shift + F3 Open the Excel formula window.
Shift + F5 Bring up search box.
Ctrl + 1 Open the Format Cells window.
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the worksheet.
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection.
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection.
Ctrl + K Insert link.
Ctrl + S Save the open worksheet.
Ctrl + U Underline highlighted selection.
Ctrl + 1 Change the format of selected cells.
Ctrl + 5 Strikethrough highlighted selection.
Ctrl + P Bring up the print dialog box to begin the printing process.
Ctrl + Z Undo last action.
Ctrl + F3 Open Excel Name Manager.
Ctrl + F9 Minimize current window.
Ctrl + F10 Maximize currently selected window.
Ctrl + F6 Switch between open workbooks or windows.
Ctrl + Page up Move between work sheets in the same document.
Ctrl + Page down Move between work sheets in the same document.
Ctrl + Tab Move between Two or more open Excel files.
Alt + = Create a formula to sum all of the above cells.
Ctrl + ‘ Insert the value of the above cell into the cell currently selected.
Ctrl + Shift + 1 Format number in comma format.
Ctrl + Shift + 4 Format number in currency format.
Ctrl + Shift + 3 Format number in date format.
Ctrl + Shift + 5 Format number in percentage format.
Ctrl + Shift + 6 Format number in scientific format.
Ctrl + Shift + 2 Format number in time format.
Ctrl + Arrow key Move to next section of text.
Ctrl + Space Select entire column.
Shift + Space Select entire row.
Ctrl + – Delete the selected column or row.
Ctrl + Shift + = Insert a new column or row.
Ctrl + Home Move to cell A1.
Ctrl + ~ Switch between showing Excel formulas or their values in cells.

Microsoft Word shortcut keys

Shortcut Description
Ctrl + 0 Toggles 6pts of spacing before a paragraph.
Ctrl + A Select all contents of the page.
Ctrl + B Bold highlighted selection.
Ctrl + C Copy selected text.
Ctrl + D Open the font preferences window.
Ctrl + E Aligns the line or selected text to the center of the screen.
Ctrl + F Open find box.
Ctrl + I Italic highlighted selection.
Ctrl + J Aligns the selected text or line to justify the screen.
Ctrl + K Insert a hyperlink.
Ctrl + L Aligns the line or selected text to the left of the screen.
Ctrl + M Indent the paragraph.
Ctrl + N Opens new, blank document window.
Ctrl + O Opens the dialog box or page for selecting a file to open.
Ctrl + P Open the print window.
Ctrl + R Aligns the line or selected text to the right of the screen.
Ctrl + S Save the open document. Just like Shift + F12.
Ctrl + T Create a hanging indent.
Ctrl + U Underline the selected text.
Ctrl + V Paste.
Ctrl + W Close the currently open document.
Ctrl + X Cut selected text.
Ctrl + Y Redo the last action performed.
Ctrl + Z Undo last action.
Ctrl + Shift + L Quickly create a bullet point.
Ctrl + Shift + F Change the font.
Ctrl + Shift + > Increase selected font +1pts up to 12pt and then increase font +2pts.
Ctrl + ] Increase selected font +1pts.
Ctrl + Shift + < Decrease selected font -1pts if 12pt or lower; if above 12, decreases font by +2pt.
Ctrl + [ Decrease selected font -1pts.
Ctrl + / + c Insert a cent sign (¢).
Ctrl + ‘ + <char> Insert a character with an accent (grave) mark, where <char> is the character you want. For example, if you wanted an accented è you would use Ctrl + ‘ + e as your shortcut key. To reverse the accent mark use the opposite accent mark, often on the tilde key.
Ctrl + Shift + * View or hide non printing characters.
Ctrl + <left arrow> Moves one word to the left.
Ctrl + <right arrow> Moves one word to the right.
Ctrl + <up arrow> Moves to the beginning of the line or paragraph.
Ctrl + <down arrow> Moves to the end of the paragraph.
Ctrl + Del Deletes word to right of cursor.
Ctrl + Backspace Deletes word to left of cursor.
Ctrl + End Moves the cursor to the end of the document.
Ctrl + Home Moves the cursor to the beginning of the document.
Ctrl + Spacebar Reset highlighted text to the default font.
Ctrl + 1 Single-space lines.
Ctrl + 2 Double-space lines.
Ctrl + 5 1.5-line spacing.
Ctrl + Alt + 1 Changes text to heading 1.
Ctrl + Alt + 2 Changes text to heading 2.
Ctrl + Alt + 3 Changes text to heading 3.
Alt + Ctrl + F2 Open new document.
Ctrl + F1 Open the Task Pane.
Ctrl + F2 Display the print preview.
Ctrl + Shift + > Increases the selected text size by one.
Ctrl + Shift + < Decreases the selected text size by one.
Ctrl + Shift + F6 Switches to another open Microsoft Word document.
Ctrl + Shift + F12 Prints the document.
F1 Open Help.
F4 Repeat the last action performed (Word 2000+)
F5 Open the Find, Replace, and Go To window in Microsoft Word.
F7 Spellcheck and grammar check selected text or document.
F12 Save As.
Shift + F3 Change the text in Microsoft Word from uppercase to lowercase or a capital letter at the beginning of every word.
Shift + F7 Runs a Thesaurus check on the selected word.
Shift + F12 Save the open document. Just like Ctrl + S.
Shift + Enter Create a soft break instead of a new paragraph.
Shift + Insert Paste.
Shift + Alt + D Insert the current date.
Shift + Alt + T Insert the current time.
You can also utilize the mouse to perform some common actions. The following section contains examples of mouse shortcuts.
Mouse shortcuts Description
Click, hold, and drag Selects text from where you click and hold to the point you drag and let go.
Double-click If double-clicking a word, selects the complete word.
Double-click Double-clicking on the left, center, or right of a blank line makes the alignment of the text left, center, or right aligned.
Double-click Double-clicking anywhere after text on a line will set a tab stop.
Triple-click Selects the line or paragraph of the text that the mouse triple-clicked on.
Ctrl + Mouse wheel Zooms in and out of document.